The game was the uncompromising centre-back's 126th for La Celeste, surpassing previous appearance record holder Maxi Pereira's tally of 125.
The defender has notched eight goals for his country and was part of their Copa America-winning side in 2011, but was focused on keeping a clean sheet in his record-breaking appearance against Thailand in the final of the China Cup.
Uruguay won the game 4-0 thanks to goals from Matias Vecino, Gaston Pereiro, Cristhian Stuani and Maxi Gomez, sealing their second successive triumph in the friendly tournament.
Godin started the game and made way after 70 minutes, with the scoreline at 3-0.
Thailand were surprise finalists after they knocked out host nation China - managed by Fabio Cannavaro - who have now failed to make the final in each of the three editions of this four-team tournament.
This year, Godin and Co. beat Uzbekistan 3-0 in their first game to advance to the final, with Stuani grabbing a brace in that match.
However, with the 33-year-old's contract set to expire at the end of the season in Madrid, there has been no sign of an extension and a Bosman transfer to Serie A giants Inter looms in the not-so-distant future after nearly a decade of faithful service to Atletico.
Godin has made 30 appearances across all competitions at club level this season, scoring three times and registering three assists.