The 27-year-old steps down after playing all three matches for Nigeria at World Cup 2018 in Russia, with the Super Eagles eliminated in the group stage.
Moses ends his international career with 37 caps and 12 goals. He played in two World Cups, and also helped the Super Eagles lift the 2013 Africa Cup of Nations.
The Chelsea man announced his international retirement with a post on Twitter.
"I have experienced some of the best moments of my life wearing the Super Eagles shirt and have memories with me that will last a lifetime," Moses said.
"However I feel that now is the right time to step away in order to be able to focus fully on club career and my young family as well as to allow the next generation of Super Eagle stars the opportunity to step up and to flourish."
Moses has come off the bench in both of Chelsea's games so far this season: a Community Shield defeat to Man City and a Premier League win at Huddersfield.