On Sunday, the midfielder was rewarded with the vice-skipper role for his team influence since joining the Black Stars in 2016.
Taking over from Inter Milan defender Kwadwo Asamoah, Partey will provide support for main captain Andre Ayew, who kept his position despite the leadership shakeup.
"It is a big honour to be chosen for this position in the national team," the 27-year-old, who has heavily been linked to Arsenal for a reported imminent transfer, posted in an appreciation message on social media.
"Thanks to the technical team for making me one of the leaders of our beloved national team.
"We will keep working hard to help this great football nation.
"Congrats to my colleagues Andre Ayew and Richard Ofori as well.
"Together we stand. God bless our homeland Ghana."
New Ghana coach CK Akonnor masterminded the Black Stars leadership reshuffle ahead of his first assignment in November - a 2022 Africa Cup of Nations (Afcon) qualifying double-header against Sudan.
"The technical team of the senior national team, the Black Stars, upon a broad consultation, has maintained Andre Ayew as captain of the side," the GFA published on their official website on Sunday.
"In a related development, Thomas Teye Partey of Atletico Madrid has been appointed as the first vice-captain while Richard Ofori steps in as second vice-captain.
"The trio will lead the team as the Black Stars go through the remaining Africa Cup of Nation qualifiers as well as the qualifying games for the 2022 Fifa World Cup in Qatar and subsequent tournaments."
Partey made his international debut for Ghana as a second-half substitute in a 2-0 triumph over Mauritius in an Afcon 2017.
A year later, he registered a sensational hat-trick as the Black Stars thrashed Congo 5-1 in a 2018 World Cup qualifier.
He represented Ghana at the 2017 and 2019 Afcon tournaments.