The 33-year-old picked up the injury in training on May 25 and was considered a major doubt for Sunday's Group C clash in Grenoble.
It has now been confirmed by Brazil boss Vadao that, despite making a good recovery over the past week, Marta is likely to play no part against Jamaica - though she may still be named among the substitutes.
"Marta's condition has improved a lot, quicker than we originally expected," he said in a news conference on Saturday. "It was a problematic injury. But the truth is that she can't play tomorrow.
"She can be on the bench if she prefers to join her team-mates, but she's not in the proper condition to play yet."
Marta won the FIFA Women's World Player of the Year award five times in a row from 2006 to 2010 and claimed The Best FIFA Women's Player prize in 2018.
She is the Women's World Cup's all-time record goalscorer with 15 goals across four previous tournaments.
The side have never failed to reach the knockout rounds with Marta in the side.
Brazil made the quarter-finals in both 2003 and 2011, while finishing as runners-up in 2007.
The 2015 side made the round of 16 before falling 1-0 to Australia.
Marta's crowing World Cup moment is her 2007 semi-final performance against the USA in which she outclassed the USWNT and netted twice to send her side to the final.
She scored six times across her side's six matches during that tournament, though could not produce any extra magic in the final as Brazil lost 2-0 to Germany in the final.