The Egypt international saw his shot saved by Jonas Lossl just before half-time of a scoreless game, before Jordan Henderson's rebound effort crashed off the post and wide.
Salah's miss was Liverpool's 34th in Premier League play, tying Arsenal for the most in the history of the competition.
34 - Liverpool have now missed 34 @premierleague penalties - no side has missed more in the competition (Arsenal also 34). Waste.— OptaJoe (@OptaJoe) October 28, 2017
Liverpool's mark could partially be seen as a positive, however, as the Reds have earned the most penalties in the history of the Premier League with 146, also scoring the most with 112.
Their conversion rate of 76.7 per cent ranks ninth all-time among teams with 50 or more Premier League penalties.
After a frustrating first half, Jurgen Klopp's side have burst into life in the second half with goals from Daniel Sturridge and Roberto Firmino .