The 18-year-old winger, who had forced himself into Maurizio Sarri’s first-team plans in recent weeks, went down towards the end of the first period after suffering no apparent contact.
Hudson-Odoi, who was replaced by Pedro, limped down the Stamford Bridge tunnel with the assistance of club staff.
Later Hudson-Odoi took to Twitter confirming his injury and promising to work his way back next season.
"[I'm] really gutted to end my season with a ruptured Achilles," he said. "Got to work hard and try and come back stronger for next season!"
The injury to his home-grown star will worry Sarri as Willian was already out of the matchday squad with a thigh injury, although the Brazilian is expected to be fit for the Blues next Premier League game against Manchester United.
Really gutted to end my season with an Ruptured Achilles, gotta work hard and try and come back stronger for next season!!!😢🙏🏾❤️ pic.twitter.com/PXC53WszdH— Callum Hudson-Odoi (@Calteck10) April 22, 2019
The match was even at 2-2 when the England international limped off, with Chelsea having fought back to a 2-1 lead through N’Golo Kante and Gonzalo Higuain. They had been behind to a wonderful Jeff Hendrick goal and surrendered their lead when Ashley Barnes finished off from close range.
Despite his first-half goal, Kante was substituted at half-time and replaced by Mateo Kovacic although Zola does not think the injury is a serious one.
"N'Golo was taken down on the counter and, as he fell, he fell on the foot of a player, so he had a contusion in his ribs," Zola said. "He couldn't breathe totally. He'll be alright."
London-born Hudson-Odoi made his first international start for England before he’d started a Premier League game for Chelsea when he appeared against Montenegro, registering an assist to Chelsea team-mate Ross Barkley.
Chelsea fans had clamoured for the tricky wide man to get more top-flight starts but Sarri made them wait.
The Italian finally gave the player an opportunity to play from the outset in the league on April 3, becoming the youngest Chelsea player to register an assist in their first start in the competition.
Bayern Munich were very keen to sign Hudson-Odoi in January, with the Bundesliga side tabling multiple bids in an attempt to take him to Germany.
The Blues refused to sell, however, with Sarri's side determined to keep hold of the player although there is likely to be further interest shown in the young winger in the summer.