A win over Germany on penalties in the decider at the Maracana saw Brazil claim the men's Olympic football for the first time in their history.
Brazil were led by Neymar and Jesus described the role the Paris Saint-Germain star played, hailing the 25-year-old for his humility.
"You know, before that tournament, I was just a fan of Neymar, like everybody else. He's an incredible footballer, which everyone knows," Jesus wrote for The Players' Tribune.
"But getting to really know him during that time … it was so special, because of the kind of person he is.
"The way that he treats everybody surprised me a lot — because even in the short amount of time that I've lived in football, I've seen so many guys who are not even amazing players, who haven't won anything, being mascarado. This means a person who wears a mask. They're one way to the public, and another in the dressing room.
"But with Neymar, he treated everybody like his brother. He was a huge reason that we were able to come together and ignore the pressure and play for one another."
Neymar scored four goals throughout the Olympic tournament, including the opener in the final.
Jesus described just how much the success meant to Brazil, writing: "When we won the gold medal, it was an incredible moment for us, and for the country.
"Before the tournament, Neymar got a tattoo, and I was inspired to get a similar one, because it really says everything in one picture.
"It's a little kid, and he's standing at the bottom of a hill, looking up at the favelas. He's just holding a football under his arm and dreaming.
"That's not just me, and it's not just Neymar. It's so many Brazilians. And that's what winning gold meant to us."