The Gunners hired Mislintat in December 2017 and he was viewed as one of the key figures in their rebuild following long-serving manager Arsene Wenger's exit after the 2017-18 season.
Bernd Leno, Sokratis Papastathopoulos, Lucas Torreira, Matteo Guendouzi and Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang all joined the club in Mislintat's time in charge, yet it was announced in January that he would be vacating his position in February. Mislintat reportedly wanted to take on a technical director role at Arsenal but instead feared his influence on the club's transfer business would diminish if they were to appoint someone else to the position.
Having formerly held a post with Bundesliga giants Borussia Dortmund, where he built a reputation as a top scout with an eye for inexpensive quality, Mislintat has returned to Germany to take a job with Stuttgart.
Stuttgart, for whom former Germany international Thomas Hitzlsperger is the head of sport, are currently 16th in the table and occupy the relegation playoff place.
"Sven Mislintat has built a great reputation in his long career and with his knowledge, his network and his way of thinking about football, he fits in perfectly with us," Hitzlsperger said in quotes published on the club's website.
"I am very pleased that he has decided to become part of our team."
Mislintat added: "It is a huge challenge and at the same time a great honour to work for a club like VFB.
"I grew up in the environment of traditional clubs, this atmosphere is very important to me."
Stuttgart are four points from safety in the Bundesliga and have six games to escape the playoff place. On Saturday they host ninth-placed Bayer Leverkusen, who have lost their last three matches in the league.