The 19-year-old defender’s new contract runs through 2020 and he will spend the 2017-18 campaign with the Championship side, who won promotion from League One last season.
"Cameron is young, athletic and highly-rated by Tottenham and we're delighted we've been trusted to continue his development,” Sheffield United manager Chris Wilder told the club’s official website.
Carter-Vickers will be available for Sheffield United’s game against Derby County at the weekend. However, it should not be assumed Carter-Vickers will be given a starting role.
Wilder added: "He is a central defender with a good attitude and adds competition for places in that area. I like the way Tottenham play and it's clear that Cameron has the ability to be a very good player."
Carter-Vickers has made four appearances for Spurs in his career - two in the English League Cup and two in the FA Cup. He has yet to receive his Premier League debut.
The defender has represented the United States at multiple youth levels, and has taken part in a pair of under-20 World Cups. He has not yet received his first full senior team cap.