Juve reported the operation was "perfectly successful" and Germany international Khedira could immediately begin rehabilitation.
"The arthroscopic 'cleaning' intervention of Sami Khedira's left knee took place today in Augsburg, Germany," a club statement read.
"The operation, carried out by Dr. Ulrich Boenisch, in the presence of Club Doctor, Nikos Tzouroudis was perfectly successful and the player will be able to start rehabilitation immediately.
"The expected recovery time is around three months."
The 32-year-old, who has made 17 appearances in all competitions for Maurizio Sarri's team this season, is set to return in March.
Khedira had the same surgery on his right knee at the end of last season, which called his future with the Serie A champions into doubt.
The German's current contract expires at the end of next season and his recent injury troubles have been a concern.
In addition to his knee issues, Khedira also had a heart problem in March that raised questions about whether his career was over.
Khedira was ultimately able to return to the pitch, but was heavily linked with a move away from Juve this summer, with Arsenal reported to be interested.
He denied he was interested in a move away though, telling Kicker: “I wouldn’t leave and I didn’t want to leave. I heard I was only staying for the money. That struck me because then the fans believed it. I’ve never played for money, only to win trophies.”
Juventus have gotten off to an undefeated start in Serie A this term as they look to win their ninth straight title, winning 11 and drawing three of their 14 games thus far.
That return, however, has them only in second place, with Inter atop the table one point ahead of Maurizio Sarri's side.
Juventus are back in action on Saturday when they take on Lazio at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome.