Deschamps and Co. prevailed 3-2 thanks to Dimitri Payet's 90th-minute free-kick in Monday's international friendly.
Payet's winner came just two minutes after Cameroon equalised via Eric Maxim Choupo-Moting.
While it was far from an ideal performance, Deschamps was happy to win ahead of Euro 2016.
"There have been problems because the opponent has qualities," Deschamps said.
"They have not thought to defend. There are things we can do better, of course.
"For some it is a long time without competition. We will look at what to fix.
"I was surprised by this team because I watched a lot of their recent games. I found them much better than in their last matches I've seen."
France hit the front in Nantes thanks to Blaise Matuidi's 20th-minute volley, but Vincent Aboubakar levelled proceedings two minutes later as Cameroon threatened on the counter-attack.
Olivier Giroud responded to boos from some of the home support outside the Stade de la Beaujoire to put France ahead four minutes before half-time.
Cameroon hit back again, this time capitalising on an error in France's defence in the 88th minute as they seemingly earned a draw until Payet's stunning winner.
"We can always improve everything. This is the first game that Adil [Rami] played with Laurent [Koscielny]," Deschamps added.
"We had more quality and that's why we have not done everything right.
"On the defensive side, not everything was perfect and it deserves more communication."