Tottenham forward Kane, captain for the second time in four days, scored either side of goals from Samuel Umtiti and Djibril Sidibe, his second from the penalty spot coming after Raphael Varane was sent off for clumsily felling Dele Alli.
But England failed to kick on, instead losing to Ousmane Dembele's goal and leaving Kane frustrated.
"Yeah, definitely [a missed chance to make a statement] - obviously scoring two goals away from home in France should be enough," he told ITV.
"We've got to find a way to win, especially when they were down to 10 men. We just weren't good enough I don't think, we have to look at why."
On France's third goal, which came as a result of an error from Eric Dier, Kane added: "That's the way we play.
"If we want to be brave, sometimes mistakes like that are going to happen. It's stuff we have to work on. Dier's a great player, the pass got cut out and it's unfortunate.
"It's disappointing, getting it back to 2-2 and [they were] down to 10 men; we didn't step up another gear, they got another wind. But, yeah, not good enough."