The 21-year-old has thrived in a breakthrough season under Mauricio Pochettino, scoring 24 goals for Tottenham, more than any other Englishman, including doubles against Arsenal and Chelsea.
Kane's exploits saw him named Premier League player of the month for both January and February, becoming the fourth player after Cristiano Ronaldo, Dennis Bergkamp and Robbie Fowler to win twice in a row.
The striker, who has eight goals in 10 outings for the Under-21 side, now looks likely to make his senior bow against Group E minnows Lithuania at Wembley on March 27.
"The whole country excited to see Harry Kane, his rise this season has been meteoric," Roy Hodgson told reporters. "We know a lot about him from the Under-21s and what he can do on the pitch is clear to see.
"He's been doing it week in week out for Tottenham and deserves his chance. When you're in squad you've got to believe you are good enough to play. Kane is competing with players who won't want to step aside."
Elsewhere, Daniel Sturridge returns after missing England's last five matches through injury and joins Wayne Rooney and Danny Welbeck as Roy Hodgson's selected forwards.
Hodgson added: "We are delighted to have Daniel Sturridge back in the squad. His form's getting better and better. In the last game, against Swansea, very good signs his sharpness was coming back."
Ben Foster misses out after being ruled out for a month with a knee injury, so Hodgson has called up just two goalkeepers in first-choice Joe Hart and Southampton's Fraser Forster.
Kyle walker, Kane's team-mate at Tottenham, is in line to make his first appearance for England since November, 2013, while Fabian Delph is rewarded with a call-up after missing the November games.
Squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Fraser Forster (Southampton), Joe Hart (Manchester City)
Defenders: Leighton Baines (Everton), Gary Cahill (Chelsea), Nathaniel Clyne (Southampton), Kieran Gibbs (Arsenal), Phil Jagielka (Everton), Phil Jones (Manchester United), Luke Shaw (Manchester United), Chris Smalling (Manchester United), Kyle Walker (Tottenham)
Midfielders: Ross Barkley (Everton), Michael Carrick (Manchester United), Fabian Delph (Aston Villa), Jordan Henderson (Liverpool), Adam Lallana (Liverpool), James Milner (Manchester City), Raheem Sterling (Liverpool), Andros Townsend (Tottenham), Theo Walcott (Arsenal)
Forwards: Harry Kane (Tottenham), Wayne Rooney (Manchester United), Daniel Sturridge (Liverpool), Danny Welbeck (Arsenal)