The Gunners have lost their last two games after a defeat at Norwich in the Premier League, before conceding two second-half goals to slip to a Champions League loss at Schalke on Wednesday.
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Bould, who won the league three times with the Gunners, replaced Pat Rice in the summer and Robson claims the new assistant manager isn’t getting on with the Arsenal boss amid another run of mediocre form.
"It looked more encouraging at the start of the season but it’s been five to six years and the same thing's happened time and time again," Robson told talkSPORT.
"I hoped that [when Steve Bould was appointed] he would do more with the defence but I'm not sure whether he's being allowed to do that by Arsene Wenger.
"I think there might be a rift in the camp between those two from what I've heard."
Arsenal host QPR in the Premier League on Saturday and travel to Reading in the Capital One Cup on Tuesday, before two crucial away trips in four days as they visit Manchester United and Schalke.