A disappointing draw with the Baden-Wurttemberg side means that BVB could potentially find themselves a hefty 11 points off the top with just 10 games played this season
The reigning champions were the dominant side throughout but lacked creativity in the final third as the pair played out their fourth consecutive Bundesliga draw, one which starkly contrasted last season's eight-goal thriller.
After a stuttering opening 10 minutes in which the visitors attacked with purpose, BVB soon quashed Stuttgart's positive play with Marcel Schmelzer particularly standing out.
Mats Hummels was adjudged to have been offside when he netted from the left-back's free kick after nine minutes, and moments later Schmelzer narrowly missed the target himself with an excellent half-volley.
The game was being heavily contested in midfield and Sebastian Kehl was forced to leave the field following an elbow from Raphael Holzhauser, which only earned Bruno Labbadia's player a booking.
Nevertheless, in the absence of their captain Dortmund remained the more impressive side going forward. Yet it was not until the 29th minute that they came agonisingly close to breaking the deadlock against the resilient Schwaben.
Once again Hummels proved to be the danger man from a set piece but after his header came back off the bar, his follow-up effort was blocked on the line by Arthur Boka.
Chances continued to remain at a premium though and the champions were almost caught out on the stroke of half time. Ibrahima Traore's cross was beat straight at the feet of Vedad Ibisevic by Weidenfeller but the Bosnian could not react quickly enough to divert it in.
BVB began the second half eager to find that elusive goal, something which Marco Reus was unable to provide as he fired wide from Lukas Piszczek's through-ball five minutes after the restart.
Julian Schieber was brought on in place of Kevin Grosskreutz as Jurgen Klopp sought a more clinical edge, and he flew straight into the thick of the action.
On the hour mark the 23-year-old was played into the area by Reus and he opened his body up to bend the ball past Sven Ulreich. However, he failed to get enough lift on the ball and the keeper made a great save to stop Schieber from scoring against his former club.
Stuttgart remained resolute at the back and, as the game wore on, began to increasingly play on the counterattack.
With 15 minutes remaining they almost took a surprise lead as Ibisevic wriggled away from Hummels inside the box. But the forward was off-balance as he struck the ball and could only fire an effort straight at the chest of Weidenfeller.
Klopp's side threw everything they had at Stuttgart in the closing stages but it proved not to be their day as Robert Lewandowski's 88th minute effort crashed off the crossbar.
BVB remain in fourth position but should Bayern Munich defeat Hamburg then the reigning champions would find themselves 11 points off the pace.