The winger saw 73 minutes of action as the Claret and Blue Army beat Derby County 2-1 in the Championship playoff final at Wembley.
In the end, Anwar El Ghazi's 44th-minute strike and John McGinn's 59th-minute goal propelled Villa to victory. The Rams' consolation goal came from Martin Waghorn nine minutes to full-time.
Villa return to the topflight after a three-year absence.
The promotion provides Adomah a second opportunity to make a name in the topflight after sensationally leaving Middlesbrough for Villa after matchday two in 2016-17, having played a key role in helping The Boro secure promotion to the elite division.
This season, the 31-year-old made 39 Championship appearances, started 24 of the games and scored four times - 10 goals less than the previous campaign when he finished the term as the club's top scorer and Player of the Season.
He played for Bristol City in the Championship between 2010 and 2013 and Barnet in League Two between 2008 and 2010.
The winger, who was part of Ghana's squads for the 2013 Africa Cup of Nations and 2014 Fifa World Cup, has been snubbed for next month's continental showpiece in Egypt where the Black Stars have been drawn against Cameroon, Benin and Guinea-Bissau in Group F.