The duo will take over the Africa Cup of Nations champions, who missed out on qualification for the World Cup, with their first game against Comoros next month.
Team-mates at both Ajax and the Oranje, Seedorf and Kluivert picked up a combined 165 caps for their nation during glittering professional careers.
Seedorf, however, a four-time winner of the Champions League during a distinguished playing career, has thus far struggled to make an impact as a manager.
The 42-year-old lasted just four months in his first post at one of his former clubs, AC Milan, while he also failed to see out six months in short spells at China League One team Shenzhen and LaLiga side Deportivo La Coruna.
Former England manager Sven-Goran Eriksson, who replaced Seedorf at Shenzhen in December 2016, had been linked with taking over the Cameroon job but the former Ajax and Real Madrid player instead got the nod.
Clarence Seedorf et Patrick Kluivert ont été nommés respectivement entraîneur principal et entraîneur adjoint de l'équipe nationale senior du Cameroun, les Lions Indomptables. pic.twitter.com/fPNMmPeod0— Fecafoot-Officiel (@FecafootOfficie) August 6, 2018
"The moment has come for me to give Africa, continent of my ancestors, what I owe him," Seedorf said in a statement.