The 21-year-old, able to play in defence and midfield, moved from the Newcastle Jets to La Viola in July, but has managed just two Serie A appearances so far this season.
He is expected to be available for Empoli's match at home to Udinese on Monday. Maurizio Sarri's team are 16th on the Serie A table, two places and two points above the relegation zone.
Brillante will hope the move affords him more regular playing time and a potential return to the Socceroos' fold.
Having been named in the expanded squad that trained in Australia before last year's World Cup, Brillante was among the players left behind when Ange Postecoglou's men departed for Brazil.
He was not included in the Socceroos' final 23-man Asian Cup squad.