The Argentina international had been out of action since September due to a rib injury he sustained in a car crash, but has made a full recovery and leads the line for Pep Guardiola's side as Gabriel Jesus drops to the bench.
Aguero is joined in the City attack by Leroy Sane and Bernardo Silva, with David Silva, Kevin De Bruyne and Fernandinho occupying the midfield.
Fabian Delph continues at left-back, with Kyle Walker, John Stones and Nicolas Otamendi completing the barrier to Ederson's goal.
Guardiola has made a total of two changes to the team that defeated Napoli during the week, with Raheem Sterling and Jesus being replaced by Bernardo and Aguero respectively.
Man City XI: Ederson, Walker, Stones, Otamendi, Delph, Fernandinho, Bernardo, Silva, De Bruyne, Sane, Aguero.
Subs: Bravo, Danilo, Sterling, Gundogan, Mangala, Jesus, Toure.
Burnley XI: Pope, Lowtown, Tarkowski, Mee, Ward, Arfield, Cork, Hendrick, Defour, Brady, Wood.
Subs: Gudmunsson, Bardsley, Westwood, Long, Taylor, Barnes, Lindegaard.