Chelsea largely controlled the first leg of their round-of-16 tie on Tuesday and appeared poised to take 1-0 lead into the return fixture at Camp Nou.
However, a mistake from Andreas Christensen allowed Lionel Messi to net a crucial away goal for Barca, leaving the Spanish giants favourites to progress.
The Blues will look to build on that display when they face Manchester United at Old Trafford on Sunday, and midfielder Kante feels Chelsea can be buoyed by how they competed with the Blaugrana as they eye second in the Premier League.
Kante said: "Second place is still possible, we have to fight for this and see what we can do at the end of the season. It's very tight. We play in Manchester and if we win we will have the same number of points.
"We have to keep winning and hopefully be in the Champions League next season.
"For sure this kind of game gives us confidence for the second leg and also in the Premier League.
"We played well. We were compact throughout the game, we tried not to give them a lot of chances and we did well in that. We hit the post two times, we scored and to finish 1-1 is a little bit disappointing.
"But it's like that, we have to go in two weeks and play to win. We showed we have the ability to do something against Barcelona.
"The Premier League is another competition and this is another opponent but it's important, we are fourth in the table and if we want to be at the top of the table and play Champions League next season we have to win these kind of games [against United]."