The Manchester United striker will lead his country during the Euro 2016 qualification campaign after the retirements of veteran stars Steven Gerrard and Frank Lampard
Rooney was recently handed the armband at Old Trafford by new boss Louis van Gaal, and will now take over from Steven Gerrard as skipper of his country.
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Manchester City goalkeeper Joe Hart and Chelsea defender Gary Cahill had been mooted as contenders to replace Gerrard, but Hodgson has selected the most experienced player in his latest squad.
Rooney has made 95 appearances for his country - more than Hart and Cahill combined - since making his debut as a 17-year-old in 2003 and is England's top active goalscorer with 40 goals.
He is 20 games behind the Three Lions' all-time most-capped outfield player, David Beckham, and 30 behind the outright leader Peter Shilton.
Rooney could make his first appearance as captain in the friendly against Norway at Wembley before England take on Switzerland in the first fixture of their Euro 2016 qualification campaign.
The forward has started two games as England captain to this point - a 1-0 defeat against Brazil in Qatar in 2009 and a 5-0 victory over San Marino at Wembley in 2012.