The Belgian champions have found a replacement for the departing Ariel Jacobs, with the successful Dutchman taking the reins ahead of next season
The Brussels outfit were in the market for a new trainer following the departure of Ariel Jacobs at the end of the 2011-12 campaign, and have now found their man after lengthy negotiations.
Van den Brom, who had a contract with Vitesse until the summer of 2014, appeared set to stay at the Eredivisie side last week, but he's now opted to leave the Europa League hopefuls following a conflict with owner Merab Jordania.
The former Netherlands international started his coaching career at AGOVV in 2007, and also worked at ADO Den Haag before joining Vitesse last summer.
He guided Vitesse to Europa League qualification for the first time in 10 years, but will now continue his career at Anderlecht.
Van den Brom will be the fifth Dutch coach in the Belgian top flight after Mario Been (Genk), Ron Jans (Standard Liege), Adrie Koster (Beerschot) and Harm van Veldhoven (Mechelen).