The 32-year-old ended a brief spell with Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao to return to his homeland on a two-year deal this week, despite having been linked with Leicester City and former club Santos.
Robinho struggled for regular playing time under former Brazil boss Luiz Felipe Scolari in China, but is now eager to hit top form and force his way back into Dunga's plans.
"My aim is to return to the national team. But first I need to play well," he told the media at his official Atletico presentation.
Robinho also denied he is obsessed with winning the Copa Libertadores, but admitted the chance to lift South America's top club prize was part of the motivation behind a move back to Brazil.
"It's not an obsession, but it's an important trophy that I still don't have," he said. "Now I have the chance to be a champion with Atletico Mineiro and that's my objective.
"I'm very motivated, very happy. I thank the players and the fans for the reception. I'm at a great club and I hope to help Atletico compete in every competition.
"I know the effort the board made. Atletico have been talking to me for a long time and I'm sure I've made the best choice.
"I have a lot of respect for Santos, but now I hope to write a story as beautiful or even more so at Atletico."