Prandelli announced his selection to face Spain in Madrid on Wednesday and De Rossi was the most notable omission after he was caught on camera punching Icardi in the face during Roma's draw with Inter on Saturday.
Pablo Osvaldo and Mario Balotelli have previously been left out by Prandelli for misdemeanours at club level and while De Rossi avoided sanction during Saturday's match, his punch has become a hot topic in Italy.
It was better news for De Rossi's club team-mate Mattia Destro, who earned international recognition after hitting the back of the net six times in 11 Serie A games since returning from a knee injury.
Genoa goalkeeper Mattia Perin and AC Milan defender Mattia De Sciglio also secured recalls to the squad.
Two uncapped players were included by Prandelli - Parma defender Gabriel Paletta and Torino forward Ciro Immobile - while Mario Balotelli (shoulder) is unavailable.
Full Italy squad to face Spain:
Goalkeepers: Gianluigi Buffon (Juventus), Mattia Perin (Genoa), Salvatore Sirigu (Paris Saint-Germain)
Defenders: Ignazio Abate (Milan), Davide Astori (Cagliari), Andrea Barzagli (Juventus), Leonardo Bonucci (Juventus), Giorgio Chiellini (Juventus), Domenico Criscito (Zenit St Petersburg), Mattia De Sciglio (AC Milan), Christian Maggio (Napoli), Gabriel Paletta (Parma)
Midfielders: Antonio Candreva (Lazio), Emanuele Giaccherini (Sunderland), Claudio Marchisio (Juventus), Riccardo Montolivo (AC Milan), Thiago Motta (Paris Saint-Germain), Marco Parolo (Parma), Andrea Pirlo (Juventus), Marco Verratti (Paris St Germain)
Forwards: Alessio Cerci (Torino), Mattia Destro (Roma), Alberto Gilardino (Genoa), Ciro Immobile (Torino), Lorenzo Insigne (Napoli), Pablo Osvaldo (Juventus)