The 35-year-old midfielder had been the captain of the Oranje squad under former coach Bert van Marwijk and received widespread criticism for his performances in the team's disastrous Euro 2012 campaign.
He has now been omitted from Van Gaal's first squad as Netherlands coach as the 60-year-old aims to rejuvenate the side.
There are several players on the list, including Wolfsburg striker Bas Dost, Feyenoord defender Jordy Clasie and Ajax stopper Ricardo van Rhijn who could make their debuts for the national side.
Netherlands will take on Turkey, Hungary, Romania, Estonia and Andorra in their World Cup 2014 qualifying group.
Below you can find the squad in full for the friendly against Belgium:
|Khalid Boulahrouz||Sporting Lisbon|
|Nigel de Jong||Manchester City|
|Ricardo van Rhijn||Ajax|
|Ron Vlaar||Aston Villa|
|Stefan de Vrij||Feyenoord|
|Gregory van der Wiel||Ajax|
|Urby Emanuelson||AC Milan|
|Siem de Jong||Ajax|
|Stijn Schaars||Sporting Lisbon|
|Rafael van der Vaart||Tottenham|
|Luuk de Jong||Borussia Monchengladbach|
|Robin van Persie||Arsenal|
|Arjen Robben||Bayern Munich|