The Red Devils earned a place in the last eight following a 2-1 win over the United States after extra time on Tuesday, scoring through Kevin De Bruyne and Romelu Lukaku before enduring a nervy finish after Julian Green's late volley.
However, Wilmots was quick to turn his attention to their quarter-final opponents, stressing that, though a high-quality side, la Albiceleste had definite weaknesses and would not find it easy to stop the Belgians.
"I am curious whether and how they are going to adapt to us," the 45-year-old told De Standard.
"They have excellent players, but there is no balance. We want to go to the semi-finals. I believe we can."
Wilmots, who was part of the Belgium squad in four World Cups, suggested that Lionel Messi would be the key threat for his team but the match would be won on psychological strength.
"To give [Messi] space is asking for trouble," he added.
"We will play collectively and block and then try to turn on the attack. Against Argentina, we are not a favourite for the first time this World Cup, but we want to go to great lengths.
"We may get past them. Argentina is slightly stronger, though the game will be won primarily on mental aspect."
The two sides face each other in their quarter-final in Brasilia on Saturday.