The Fulham striker is joined by team-mate Giorgios Karagounis, Roma man Vasilis Torosidis and experienced forward Giorgios Samaras
The striker joined the London outfit in a club-record deal from Olympiakos in January but failed to make an impact as the Cottagers suffered relegation from the Premier League.
However, Mitroglou has been included in Fernando Santos' 30-man squad, along with Fulham team-mate and 132-cap veteran Giorgios Karagounis.
Lazaros Christodoulopoulos and Panagiotis Kone will be keen to link up with the national team along with the Fulham duo, having also experienced relegation to Serie B with Bologna.
Georgios Samaras, Sokratis Papastathopoulos, Vasilis Torosidis, Panagiotis Tachtsidis, Kostas Fortounis, Ioannis Fetfatzidis, Theofanis Gekas, Orestis Karnezis, and Loukas Vyntra are the other players plying their trade outside of Greece.
Olympiakos dominated the local contingent, with no less than six players on the provisional list, though rivals PAOK have five.
Greece have upcoming friendlies against Portugal, Nigeria and Bolivia before their opening Group C clash with Colombia in Belo Horizonte on June 14.
Squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Panaglotis Glykos (PAOK), Stefanos Kapino (Panathinaikos), Orestis Karnezis (Granada), Michalis Sifakis (Atromitos), Alexandros Tzorvas (Apollon Smyrnis)
Defenders: Jose Holebas, Giannis Maniatis, Kostas Manolas, Avraam Papadopoulos (Olympiakos), Sokratis Papastathopoulos (Borussia Dortmund), Dimitris Siovas (Olympiakos), Vasilis Torosidis (Roma), Giorgios Tzavellas (PAOK), Loukas Vyntra (Levante)
Midfielders: Lazaros Christodoulopoulos (Bologna), Ioannis Fetfatzidis (Genoa), Kostas Fortounis (Kaiserslautern), Giorgos Karagounis (Fulham), Kostas Katsouranis (PAOK), Panagiotis Kone (Bologna), Sotiris Ninis (PAOK), Andreas Samaris (Olympiakos), Panagiotis Tachtsidis (Torino), Alexandros Tziolis (Kayserispor)
Forwards: Theofanis Gekas (Konyaspor), Kostas Mitroglou (Fulham), Dimitris Papadopoulos (Atromitos), Dimitris Salpingidis (PAOK), Georgios Samaras (Celtic)