The 28-year-old went under the knife on Thursday and is likely to be missing until after the winter break
The right-back had hip surgery at the beginning of June after suffering cartilage damage and has now gone under the knife for a second time to treat a separate problem.
“The long-planned surgery was this morning in the Dortmund Hospital, successfully performed by Dr. Karl-Heinz Bauer," read a statement on Dortmund's official website.
"According to BVB team doctor Markus Braun, the surgery will not result in any delays in the healing process."
The club have been starting Kevin Grosskreutz at right-back and could dip into the transfer market to reinforce their defence, with Oliver Kirch their only other option in the full-back slot.
Piszczek was an integral part of Dortmund’s run to the Champions League final last season, starting 12 of the club’s 13 games in the competition, while adding two goals and 10 assists in 29 appearances in the Bundesliga.