The Germany international defender has been involved in solitary practice sessions, but will not feature in Friday's Bundesliga game against Werder Bremen
The defender picked up a thigh strain in his side's 3-0 Champions League loss against Olympique de Marseille on September 28 and has been out of action since.
But BVB have now announced on their official website that Schmelzer has returned to training, although he will not be fit in time for Friday's away match against Werder Bremen.
"He again did not practice with the team. Miracles happen, but in football they are a rare commodity," head coach Jurgen Klopp said.
"If the game were on Sunday, it might have been worth a thought. But as things stand, we will have to do without 'Schmelle' in Bremen on Friday."
The reigning Bundesliga champions currently sit sixth in the Bundesliga table, with 13 points from eight games.