The former Bolton and Fulham defensive midfielder has opted to move to Doha to join the club owned by Al Jazeera chairman Hamad bin Thamer
The 29-year-old former Bolton and Fulham man joins the Doha-based club who finished eighth in the 2011-12 campaign.
Teymourian leaves Esteghlal after only one season with the Tehran club, where he helped them lift the Hazfi Cup and qualify for the 2013 AFC Champions League with a third place league finish.
Al Kharaitiyat, who are one of Qatar's youngest clubs have been founded in 1996, are owned by Al Jazeera Network chairman Hamad bin Thamer.
The Doha club reached the final of last season's Qatar Stars Cup and have continually struggled to retain their top flight status in recent years.