Diego Simeone's side were held at home to Malaga on Sunday evening, while the Catalans were unable to beat Elche, meaning the title will now be decided at Camp Nou next weekend
A goalless draw at Elche for the Blaugrana meant Atletico would have won the title with a victory at home to Malaga, but Diego Simeone's side were held themselves to a 1-1 tie at home to Malaga.
The two teams therefore both remain in control of their own destiny ahead of a mouth-watering decider in the Catalan capital next Saturday.
Atletico, unbeaten in five fixtures against Barca in 2013-14, now need only a point at Camp Nou in the last round of La Liga in order to be crowned champions, while the Catalans must beat Simeone's side to claim the title via their head-to-head record.
A win for Gerardo Martino's men would see both teams finish the season on 89 points, but Barca would prevail thanks to their superior head-to-head record in the two meetings between the sides (being as the first was a 0-0 draw and they would have won the second).
Real Madrid, meanwhile, are out of the race altogether after losing 2-0 at Celta Vigo on Sunday, but Carlo Ancelotti's side will finish second if they beat Espanyol next weekend and Atleti defeat Barca at Camp Nou.