The Camp Nou trainer spent 10 weeks in the US earlier in 2013 to undergo chemotherapy and radiotherapy but returned to join the squad in early April and has been the active coach in the weeks since then.
Vilanova had planned on receiving further treatment at the end of the season but he and the club have agreed that he can return to New York on Monday but he is expected to be back on the touchline for next Sunday's clash with Espanyol.
He told reporters on Saturday: "Next week, I'll be in New York again for therapy. But I'll be back for the game against Espanyol."
Following the confirmation from the coach, the Catalan giants confirmed the short leave of absence and explained that the club sealing the Liga title early had brought the treatment forward from the summer.
"The pioneering treatment has been developed at a specialised centre and is proving particularly effective," Barcelona revealed in a statement.
"It was originally planned for this summer but as Barca has now clinched the league title it has been advanced to next week. Tito Vilanova will be away from Barcelona from Monday to Friday."