Second-half goals from Edinson Cavani and Marek Hamsik gave the Partenopei a deserved victory and inflicted defeat upon the Serie A champions, who had enjoyed an unbeaten campaign in the league.
"I do not like to lose - especially in a final," Conte told Rai Sport after the game.
"This match has to make us understand that we must always be at 100 per cent. Napoli had something more than us tonight. This is a young group and we must always keep in mind what we needed to do in order to win.
"We had some players who were not 100 per cent fit, like Stephan Lichtsteiner and Arturo Vidal. The regrets are there, because we did not want to lose."
Prior to the match, Juventus director Giuseppe Marotta said that Conte's contract renewal with the club is a 'formality'.