Second-half goals from Leonardo Bonucci, Arturo Vidal and Fabio Quagliarella saw the Bianconeri ease past Napoli to become just two points behind leaders AC Milan in the race for the Serie A title.
"In the last two weeks, we clearly beat Inter and Napoli, two sides who were ahead of us before the start of the season, in terms of quality and organisation," Conte told Sky Sport Italia.
"The victory against Napoli must be a source of pride because they are a great side who played very well in the Champions League and who are growing a lot under [coach] Walter Mazzarri.
"I am proud of my players and of what they did tonight. We are improving a lot from a psychological point of view."
Despite Juventus getting within touching distance of leaders AC Milan, who drew against Catania on Saturday, Conte was coy about his side's chances of winning the Scudetto.
"We will try to take advantage of any slip-ups that Milan make," Conte noted. "The title is Milan's to lose, because no one else has the same personnel than they do.
"The Rossoneri are a very strong side, who won the title last season and who are first despite having had so many players injured.
"They are also in the race for the Champions League trophy after drawing against Barcelona, the strongest side in the world."
Marco Borriello produced yet another lacklustre display for Juventus, but Conte refused to criticise the 29-year-old striker, who is on loan from Roma.
"Borriello has a lot of quality, and if he had arrived in June and had worked with us in the pre-season, his story would be much different," Conte said.
"He is growing now and he gave us a helping hand tonight."