The Bianconeri met heavy resistance and ultimately they had to settle for a point against Davide Ballardini's plucky side
A first-half strike by Mirko Vucinic gave Antonio Conte's men an early lead as the Old Lady dominated before the break.
Shortly after the restart, however, Andrea Cossu pounced on a mistake in defence by Leonardo Bonucci and fired a powerful shot from outside the box past the helpless Gianluigi Buffon. Juventus tried to fight back, but Cagliari held firm to secure a vital point.
The Old Lady showed they meant business right from the start as they constantly pressed Davide Ballardini's side in the early minutes of the game. It was not long before the scoring was opened as Stephan Lichtsteiner made a great run on the right before selflessly teeing up Vucinic, who converted easily from close range.
Juventus continued to press after the goal, and nearly made it 2-0 in the 24th minute when a brilliant flick by Claudio Marchisio caught Arturo Vidal by surprise, and the Chilean could not apply a proper finish with only Michael Agazzi to beat.
The tempo dropped after the half-hour mark and this allowed Cagliari a few chances to threaten Buffon's goal. The visitors had two penalty shouts turned down and they were slowly gaining momentum.
The restart saw Juve switch to a rather sluggish pace, and this was soon punished by Ballardini's men. In the 47th minute a cross by Joaquin Larrivey was poorly cleared by Bonucci into the path of Cossu, who took a couple of steps before firing an unstoppable shot past Buffon and into the corner of the net.
The Old Lady looked devoid of answers to Cagliari's brave comeback, and hardly created opportunities until late in the second period. In the 76th minute Vucinic was released in a decent position on the left, but blasted horribly over the bar, much to the dismay of the home fans.
Moments later Cagliari were in trouble again, but Agazzi came to the rescue, parrying a header from substitute Alessandro Del Piero, following a free-kick by Andrea Pirlo.
Juventus threw everything forward in the final minutes of the game, and substitute Milos Krasic was given the chance to make himself a hero, but dragged his shot from the edge of the area woefully wide with the goal at his mercy.
Following this result, Juventus are first in the standings with 38 points, but could be leapfrogged by AC Milan later tonight if Massimiliano Allegri's men manage to defeat Inter in the Milanese derby.