Laurent Blanc's men left it late to earn a draw against the Balkan nation, with Samir Nasri winning and then converting a penalty to send France to Euro 2012
Edin Dzeko showed excellent technique and vision to find the top corner in the 40th minute as France failed to break down a resolute Bosnian back line, much to the dismay of the home support. However, Samir Nasri's coolly taken spot kick with 12 minutes to go gave the hosts the point they needed to finish top of their group.
Laurent Blanc's side end the qualifying campaign as winners of Group D, a point ahead of Bosnia & Herzegovina, who will now play a two-legged tie as they look to reach their first major tournament in their history.
The away side made the brighter start to the game and came close to opening the scoring on 24 minutes. Zvjezdan Misimovic slid a through ball into the path of Edin Dzeko, who could only blast over the crossbar from 12 yards out.
Bosnia continued to look the better team and got their just rewards in the 40th minute when Dzeko atoned for his earlier miss with a superb strike.
Miralem Pjanic's quick thinking saw the Roma playmaker find the Manchester City forward on the edge of the box with a short free-kick. Dzeko turned brilliantly before curling the ball into the top corner, leaving Hugo Lloris with no chance, as the Balkan outfit took their lead into the half-time break.
Despite their poor performance in the opening 45 minutes, France almost equalised within two minutes of the restart. Florent Malouda found himself in space on the left-side of the Bosnian box before the Chelsea man drilled an inviting ball along the six-yard line, which was somehow missed by Loic Remy.
On 71 minutes, France came close to drawing level from a set-piece, yet Begovic made a stunning stop to tip the ball onto the crossbar. Samir Nasri lined up a free-kick 25 yards from goal but was denied by the Stoke City keeper's acrobatic save, with Boris Pandza mopping up the danger.
However, it was to be heartbreak for the away nation when Samir Nasri was fouled perilously close to the edge of the area by Emir Spahic.
The referee pointed to the spot, and the diminutive playmaker stepped up take the spot-kick himself, calmly slotting the ball into the bottom corner, sending Begovic the wrong way to earn Blanc's men the draw they needed.
BiH will now be placed into Thursday's play-off draw where they will find out who they will play in the two-legged tie, with the first leg to be played on the 11 and 12 November, and the return legs on 15 November.
France, on the other hand, will begin their preparations for next summer's European Championships which will be held in Poland and Ukraine.