The home side started off the worse but quickly turned the score around to claim the full three points and move up to the top of the Bundesliga table
The visitors were the first to score, through Makoto Hasebe on 12 minutes, with the Japanese drilling the ball home after being assisted by Christian Trasch's header.
Wolfsburg's lead only lasted two minutes, though, as Simon Kjaer slipped in his team's own half when he had the ball, leaving the path open for Raul Bobadilla to assist Marco Reus for the goal.
The hosts took the lead on 32 minutes through Filip Daems, who called to the spot after Reus had been brought down in the area and Bobadilla turned scorer just before the break with a close-range header after a corner.
Monchengladbach's Reus set the final score in the 66th minute as he converted Juan Fernando Arango's cross from the right with a well-placed volley effort.
With the victory, Monchengladbach are leading the Bundesliga table with seven points, while Wolfsburg are 11th, with three points.