The 22-year-old says his agent told him of the club's interest in the Pole, who eventually agreed a move to European champions Bayern Munich at the end of the season on a free transfer.
"[Jose] Mourinho said no [to a Dortmund move]," De Bruyne told Bild.
When asked if a failed moved for Lewandowski played a part in the failed move, the winger added: "That's what they told me and also my agent.
"But that is professional football. Where there is a lot of money changing hands, there is also a lot of politics."De Bruyne eventually completed a big-money move to Wolfsburg in January after falling down the pecking order under Mourinho, and is now eyeing a DFB-Pokal victory over Dortmund.
He continued: "Since [sporting director] Klaus Allofs is here, the VfL are really progressing. That convinced me. They wanted me from the start and were always interested to find a good solution in the transfer talks with Chelsea.
"Of course it is a goal for me to win titles. We are in the DFB-Pokal against Dortmund. We want to win there."