The Portugal international - who celebrates his 29th birthday on Wednesday - received his marching orders in the 76th minute of Sunday's Liga encounter after an altercation with Athletic's Ander Iturraspe and Carlos Gurpegui.
Ronaldo consequently risked a suspension that could cover anything from one game to in excess of three and the RFEF has now opted to keep him out of action for three matches.
The forward was slapped with a one-game ban for the incident with Iturraspe, while getting an additional two games for his offensive gesture after his dismissal.
He will miss the Liga games at home against Villarreal (Feb. 9) and Elche (Feb. 23) as well as the away match versus Getafe (Feb. 16).
However, Ronaldo will be available for both legs of the Copa del Rey semifinal tie against Atletico Madrid, with the first leg taking place at the Santiago Bernabeu on Wednesday.