The Bayern Munich ace beat Juventus captain Gianluigi Buffon to the annual award, which had been won by Real Madrid's out-of-favor shot stopper for the past five years.
The 27-year-old shot stopper, who won five trophies with Bayern Munich in 2013, while at the same time helping Germany qualify for this summer's World Cup in Brazil, was the clear victor of the vote, which brings together editors and experts from 70 countries.
Neuer finished with 211 points, a staggering 133 clear of his closest rival, Italy and Juventus captain Gianluigi Buffon, who has four previous triumphs to his name.
Chelsea's Petr Cech finished third, just ahead of the Blues' Thibaut Courtois, who is currently on loan at Atletico Madrid.
Victor Valdes, who is to leave Barcelona at the end of the season, came home fifth, with Real Madrid's out-of-favor goalkeeper Iker Casillas, who had won the award for the past five years, claiming sixth place.