The Belgian goalkeeper insisted los Rojiblancos intend to fight for La Liga but admitted the Catalans and Real Madrid are difficult opponents to overcome
The goalkeeper, who will spend a third year on loan at the Vicente Calderon from Chelsea this season, was part of the side that beat Real Madrid in the Copa del Rey final in May.
Courtois is keen to claim another major victory over one of the Spanish giants, though he accepts that competing with the duo for the La Liga will be extremely tough.
"The team's objective has to be to win another trophy," Courtois told reporters at a press conference. "In August [during the Super Cup tie with Barcelona] we can win another one.
"We should also fight for the top of the league, but it will be difficult [to break Barca and Real Madrid's hegemony].
"We have to try to get as far in the Champions League as we can this season. We saw Malaga reach the quarter-finals, so nearly reach the semi-finals, so we'll see if we can get there."
Former talisman Radamel Falcao departed in a big-money switch for Monaco, but the 21-year-old shot-stopper insisted the side will still possess the means to challenge on all fronts.
"The team is all here and only missing Radamel," Courtois added. "I believe that the club is looking for other reinforcements in attack and I think we have the team to play well.
"I'm very happy because it was my desire to stay here and reach an agreement with Atletico for another year. The pre-season is hard, but it's important to compete and get to next June. I want to keep improving and go a step further."