The 25-year-old has a knee problem and will not travel with the Indomitable Lions for their game with Tanzania, while Samuel Eto'o is also ruled out.
The 25-year-old former Arsenal player had been due to take part in the game in Dar es Salaam but he will now not travel.
“Song has felt a twinge in his left knee and as a precaution, he will not be traveling with the Cameroon squad," said a statement on Barca's website, fcbarcelona.com.
Song has won 36 caps for Cameroon, but is yet to score for his country having made his debut in 2005. He was recently voted the worst La Liga signing of the season so far by readers of Spanish magazine Marca, along with Luka Modric.
The injury blow follows news that Cameroon will also be without striker Samuel Eto'o, who is struggling with a back problem.
Cameroon has endured a disappointing 12 months, culminating in its failure to qualify for the Africa Cup of Nations, which is currently taking place in South Africa.