The 44-year-old underwent surgery on Thursday after he suffered a relapse of the tumor in his mouth which he suffered for a large part of the 2011-12 campaign.
The operation went according to plan, and Vilanova has now been moved to a regular unit for the next three to four days.
The Spaniard will start with chemotherapy and radiation treatment that is scheduled to last around six weeks in the upcoming days.
Jordi Roura will take Vilanova's place on the Barcelona bench for its last Liga match of 2012 away against Valladolid at the weekend, and will remain in charge until the his boss has recovered fully.
Vilanova took over from Pep Guardiola ahead of the 2012-13 campaign and guided Barca to its best ever start in La Liga, dropping only two points from its opening 16 games.