The trainer was not fully satisfied with the French youngster's outing despite his sensational strike and expects his side to maintain its concentration better.
The Bianconeri raced into a two-goal lead thanks to goals from Arturo Vidal and Fernando Llorente inside the opening 25 minutes. An Andrea Barzagli own goal pulled one back for the visitors, before Vidal's second made it 3-1 and Manolo Gabbiadini's 70th minute strike kept Sampdoria in the game.
Pogba had the final say with a stunning goal with 12 minutes remaining, but it still wasn't enough to earn the praise of Conte.
"Tonight, Pogba could have done a lot better," the Italian told reporters. "I’ve certainly seen better performances from Paul. At times the goal fogs the vision of the whole game, but I get angry as people forget everything around it. I ask my players to keep their concentration to the 90th minute and tonight it was hard to kill the game off.
"We cannot dominate games and always have this anxiety from set-plays. Sampdoria’s goals came from corners, and we need to work on this. Hats off to them, they gave us great difficulty from set-pieces. You always need to be fully focused. This has been the difference between us and the others over the past two-and-a-half years."
Victory means Juventus maintains its eight-point lead on Roma at the summit of the table.