The striker, who had been recuperating in the Netherlands, took part in a full training session and could feature before the end of the season.
The Netherlands international picked up a knee injury in United's 1-1 draw with Bayern Munich at Old Trafford in the first leg of the Champions League quarterfinal clash.
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But Van Persie has returned to training ahead of schedule, and the club is optimistic that he could have some involvement before the season is over.
The Dutchman had returned to his homeland to recuperate, though made several trips back to Carrington for various check-ups.
And Friday, just days after David Moyes was sacked by the club, he took part in his first full training session since picking up the injury at the start of April.
Van Persie had clashed with the Scot over his training methods and was unhappy with the greater emphasis placed on running and endurance in sessions.
The 30-year-old was worried he was being over-trained, which could make him more susceptible to injury.
Van Persie's season has been hampered by injury throughout, only making 18 appearances in the Premier League and completing 90 minutes on just 10 occasions — though he still managed to net 11 league goals.
While in Holland recovering, Van Persie was spotted in the stands of several Eredivisie matches alongside Netherlands boss Louis van Gaal — a leading candidate to succeed Moyes.