The Liverpool manager was disappointed to see the Cameroon international escape punishment for a foul on the midfielder in the defeat to Chelsea at Stamford Bridge.
The Merseyside outfit fell to a 2-1 defeat at Stamford Bridge, with Eto'o notching the decisive goal with a close-range effort 11 minutes before the break.
Liverpool opened the scoring after just three minutes courtesy of Martin Skrtel's tap-in, which came about when the visitors were awarded a free kick for Eto'o's high tackle on Henderson.
But Rodgers believes the Cameroonian should not have been on the pitch at that stage, though he refused to criticize referee Howard Webb.
"I know we scored from it, but that was a wild challenge where he's [Eto'o's] raked down his [Henderson's] knee and shin and didn't even get a yellow card," the Northern Irishman told reporters. "He never even got booked for that, but he's a top referee Howard - he's a world-class referee."
Rodgers also confirmed defender Mamadou Sakho is set for a spell on the sidelines after he suffered a hamstring injury late in the game, while Joe Allen will also be assessed after being withdrawn with an abductor issue.