The England striker flicked Daniel Agger's goal-bound effort beyond David de Gea and Tom Cleverley on the line in the first half to grab the goal that proved to be the winner in a fiery Premier League encounter.
United battled in vain to come back into the game, but Simon Mignolet remained defiant as he kept his third clean sheet of the season.
Brendan Rodgers was forced to change his Liverpool starting XI for the first time in the Premier League this season as a groin injury kept Kolo Toure out. Martin Skrtel replaced the Ivorian at the heart of Liverpool’s defense alongside Daniel Agger.
Wayne Rooney was the notable absentee for the visitors - the striker ruled out with a head injury – with Antonio Valencia dropping to the bench as Ashley Young and Ryan Giggs replaced them.
With Tiago Ilori, Mamadou Sakho and Victor Moses all watching on from the stands ahead of potential moves to Anfield, the home side had the perfect start with a goal inside four minutes.
Steven Gerrard’s corner was met by Agger and as his header flew towards goal, Sturridge reacted quickly to divert the ball into the back of the net from close range.
United reacted well to conceding so early and should have leveled on three occasions as Danny Welbeck and Robin van Persie both missed good chances.
Welbeck fired two shots straight at Simon Mignolet and Van Persie failed to react to a Giggs corner that had evaded a host of players inside the penalty area.
Rodgers’ side controlled the majority of the half with neat passing and fluid movement, but was unable to test David de Gea in the United goal.
Young – who had been quiet in the first half – went close to equalizing for United just after the break with the visiting team's best sight of goal.
Liverpool failed to clear a corner but Young’s half-volley struck Glen Johnson and deflected away.
The rivalry between the two sides began to intensify as the game reached the hour mark, referee Andre Marriner issuing five yellow cards – four of them to United players.
United substitute Nani stung the palms of Mignolet minutes after coming on but the home team was able to keep its opponent at bay.