The Gunners' midfielder started the 1-0 win over Newcastle unexpectedly following a quick return from an ankle injury, but was forced to withdraw inside 30 minutes with a recurrence of the problem.
But, after securing the last Champions League place, Arteta praised the team spirit shown by everyone at the club, and suggested the club could push for a title win next season.
"We kept great TOGETHERNESS between Players,Staff,Directors & Supporters and we got rewarded!" Arteta wrote on Twitter.
"Proud 2 play 4 Arsenal!Let's win a tittle now!"
Arsenal has gone eight seasons without winning a trophy, and nine since lifting the Premier League, as Arsene Wenger prepares for his 18th season in charge.