The 25-year-old was voted by members of the first-team squad and technical staff as the Blues' best player this season, with Nathan Ake winning Young Player of the Year
The 25-year-old beat stiff competition for the award after a fine campaign which has seen him play in eight different competitions, scoring 19 goals and registering 28 assists.
The Spaniard chose to thank the squad on receiving his award, espousing his delight to play at a club like Chelsea.
He told the audience at the event: "I want to say thank you to all of my teammates.
"I feel very proud to play for a team like Chelsea with all these amazing players, so it's a thank you to them.
"We have 24 or 25 top players and any one of them could have been the winner."
Mata joins fellow Spaniard Fernando Torres in the extraordinary feat of being the current holders of the World Cup, European Championship, Champions League and Europa League titles.
Nathan Ake followed up his breakthrough season by winning Young Player of the Year, while Oscar won Goal of the Season with his effort against Juventus in the Champions League.
Ake added: "It was really special. When you're 18 and involved in the squad, the Europa League is really big, so it was a great experience for me."
Frank Lampard collected a Special Recognition award from Bobby Tambling, the man whom he surpassed to top the all-time goalscoring charts at Stamford Bridge.