A narrow win over Southeast Asia's Philippines ensured a spot at Asia's biggest football tournament, a first for the West Asian state.
Ashraf Nu'man Al Fawaghra's solitary strike coming from a well-taken free kick in the second-half proved to be the winning goal in Maldives.
A clean sheet in the final also ensured that Palestine ended its AFC Challenge Cup campaign having conceded no goals in its four matches played at the competition.
A scoreless draw against host nation Maldives was the only instance the West Asian state also failed to find the net, having registered 1-0 and 2-0 wins of Kyrgyzstan and Myanmar respectively in the group stage before seeing off Afghanistan in the semifinal
Philippines, meanwhile, was the only Southeast Asian team left in the competition following the group stage exits of Myanmar and Laos.
Maldives finished in third place after defeating Afghanistan 8-7 on penalties, following a 1-1 result at the end of extr time on Thursday night.
The qualification marks Palestine's first appearance at the Asian Cup where it will be placed in Group D alongside Japan, Jordan and Iraq.